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Web Resources

The Partition Library is presently under construction. Once completed, the library will be a compilation of all known resources on Partition managed by a team of volunteer staff and interns, and kept updated through your contributions.

Know of a book, movie or website on Partition that you would like to see listed here? Contact us with your suggestions and help develop this citizen-powered library. The development of this library is a work in progress and we welcome your contribution.

"India: a people partitioned" (BBC Radio Documentaries)

Andrew Whitehead

From Website: " In 1997, after four years as a BBC correspondent based in Delhi, I had the enviable opportunity of making a radio series for the BBC World Service to mark the fiftieth anniversary of India's and Pakistan's independence. India: a people partitioned sought to be a social history of Partition: not about the high politics of independence, nor about the British Raj and those who upheld it, but about the lived experience of the millions who were caught up in the Partition whirlwind.

"Partitioned Lives: Migrants, Refugees, Citizens in India and Pakistan, 1947-65"

Haimanti Roy
History Faculty Publications

15th August 1947: India after Partition is declared Independent of British Rule

Maps of India

Maps of India offers a summary of events that describe the 1947 Partition of India and Pakistan.

1946: The Great Calcutta Killings and the Noakhali Genocide

Sinha, Dinesh Chandra
Dasgupta Ashoke
Sri Himangshu Maity

1947: The Year of Partition


This website provides first-hand accounts of people’s own experiences and memories of partition. It also provides reflections on the actions of political leaders during partition.


Dr. Kavita Daiya

This website collects “educational resources about the histories and experiences of the 1947 Partition of India in order to create new knowledge about the transnational effects of ethnic violence and migration in the modern world.”

2 - Noakhali and After: History, Memory and Representations

Sengupta, Debjani
Cambridge University Press

Literature and history serve the same God and have a close interdependence on each other in that they both ‘narrate’ events. The empiricist and the constructionist theories of history have come under challenge and there is now an increased recognition that history's invented, discursive narratives have a close relationship with the figurative codes of literature as both depend on language and narrative forms. Both are, in particular ways, creations of the human imagination, although with differing objectives.

26 Extremely Rare Photos From 1947 That Show The Horror Of Partition

Akarsh Mehrotra

From scoopwhoop.com: After gaining independence from British Raj, India was to be divided into two separate countries (India and Pakistan). A major population exchange happened with around 25 million people relocating to their new homes and what followed was complete chaos. A large evil loomed over the population that was shifting to a new country once the borders were drawn. Religious riots along with acts of oppression and cruelty marked this huge event as a dark blot on the history of the two countries.

A well educated mind vs a well formed mind: Dr. Shashi Tharoor at TEDxGateway 2013

Youtube/TED talks

Minister of State,Ministry of Human Resource Development,Government of India

An elected Member of Parliament, former Minister of State for External Affairs and former Under-Secretary-General to the United Nations, Dr. Shashi Tharoor is the prize-winning author of fourteen books, including the classic The Great Indian Novel (1989), India from Midnight to the Millennium (1997), Nehru: The Invention of India (2003) and most recently Pax Indica: India & the World of the 21st Century (2012).

After Partition: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh


From BBC: A special report on how India, Pakistan, and since 1971 Bangladesh, have developed since partition.

Bangla Stories

Dr. Claire Alexander
Dr. Joya Chatterji
Shahzad Firoz
Dr. Annu Jalais
LSE/Runnymede Trust

From website: "Our stories of migration came out of a three- year London School of Economics/University of Cambridge project. They’re told by people who left Bengal after Independence in 1947 when the state was divided into West Bengal and East Pakistan (later Bangladesh). These are stories of people who left behind home and family, people who crossed new borders and travelled overseas, people who made new lives."

BBC History: The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies

Dr Crispin Bates
British Broadcasting Corp.

BBC gives a historical account of the 1947 Partition; it provides an explanation of the causes and legacy of partition.

British Voices from South Asia

Rosan Augusta Jordan and Frank de Caro

"The exhibition marks the acquisition by the T. Harry Williams Center for Oral History at LSU of a series of taped interviews -- conducted by Professors Frank de Caro and Rosan Augusta Jordan of the LSU English Department -- with British people who lived and worked in India before Independence in 1947. Collectively they provide a sort of "self-portrait" of a colonial subculture and accounts of how Europeans experienced a great Asian society under the peculiar conditions of their time. Quotations from the interviews have been included for each section of the exhibition.

Chester 1947 Partition: Drawing the Indo-Pakistani Boundary

Lucy Chester
American Diplomacy

A commentary and analysis of the 1947 Partition from Dr. Chester. "Drawing from her dissertation, she considers here the background to timely questions associated with the Kashmir dispute. She raises the policy question of partition as a tool for crisis management or resolution, and she provides useful historical evidence for scholars wishing to draw contemporary lessons."

China + India: The Power of Two

Madhavi Thampi
Harvard Business Review

"China and India are burying the hatchet after four-plus decades of hostility. A few companies from both nations have been quick to gain competitive advantages by viewing the two as symbiotic. If Western corporations fail to do the same, they will lose their competitive edge—and not just in China and India but globally.

DNA Explainer: Why did Partition of India happen and the horrors that took place

Shampa Sen
DNA Web Desk

DNA Special: Has China become India's enemy No. 1? Where does Pakistan stand?

Karishma Jain
DNA Web Desk

Dr Shashi Tharoor MP - Britain Does Owe Reparations


The motion: This house believes Britain owes reparations to her former colonies.

ABOUT THE OXFORD UNION SOCIETY: The Union is the world's most prestigious debating society, with an unparalleled reputation for bringing international guests and speakers to Oxford. It has been established for 189 years, aiming to promote debate and discussion not just in Oxford University, but across the globe.

Exploring the China-India Relationship Roundtable Report

Julia M. Rosenfield
CNA Analysis & Report

"With the 60th anniversary of the establishment of formal diplomatic ties between the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of India taking place in the spring of 2010, the time was right to further explore the China-India relationship. On July 29, 2010, CNA China Studies hosted a half-day roundtable to discuss this important topic. Participants, who included analysts from various think-tanks in Washington, DC, were asked to address the following issues:
 India’s perspective on the China-India relationship
 China’s perspective on the China-India relationship

Getty Images: India 1947

Getty Images

A collection of photographic images relating to the 1947 Partition of India. Some notable photographers included in this collection are Margaret Bourke-White, Bert Hardy, and Robert Nickelsberg.

Himal Southasian

The Southasian Trust

The Himal Southasian is "South Asia's first and only regional news and analysis magazine...critical analysis, commentary, opinion, essays and reviews -- covering regional trends in politics and economics with the same perspective as culture and history, Himal stories do not stop at national borders, but are followed wherever they lead." This online magazine features material on important aspects of Indian History as well, including the Partition of India.

India and China: Conflict and Cooperation

David M. Malone
Rohan Mukherjee

India Independence

The British Library Board

From website:"This is a portal to educational sources available in the India Office Records on the historical event of Indian Independence, 1947."

India of the Past: Preserving Memories of India and Indians

Subodh Mathur

This website is "preserving memories of India and Indians." It features written interviews, exposing the personal stories of people's first-hand experiences during important times of Indian History.

India Relief and Education Fund: Partition - The Great Migration

Margaret Bourke-White
India Relief and Education Fund

From their Resource Center on South Asian History, "South Asia has suffered from several mis-portrayals that have reduced the understanding of its historical development to the spiritual realm, whereas in fact, the region has made several contributions in the areas of science, technology, art and literature, and prior to the colonial period, it was a major world supplier of high quality pre-industrial manufactures. Here are links to various articles covering different period of its history."

India's partition and the defence of Pakistan: An historical perspective

Ayesha Jalal
Cambridge University Press

India/Pakistan: Indian Independence and the Question of Partition

The Choices Program

The Choices Program is a non-profit organization based at Brown University that develops curricula on current and historical international issues. Course materials place special emphasis on the importance of educating students in their participatory role as citizens. This particular curriculum focuses on Indian Independence and the Partition of 1947.

Indian Memory Project: 1947 India Pakistan Partition Archives

Anusha Yadav
The Memory Company

From website: "Indian Memory Project is an online, curated, visual and narrative based archive that traces a history of the Indian Subcontinent, via photographs and letters found in personal archives. Contextualised with narratives, the photographs & letters (contributed by people all over the world) reveal a powerful and historical palimpsest of a largely undocumented society and sub-continent.

Legacy of Partition

Leicestershire County Council

An online archive of an exhibit held May 2, 2009 at the Braunstone Civic Centre focusing on The Legacy of Partition, 1947-2009.

Looking backwards and forwards from Partition

Ramachandra Guha
Hindustan Times

A look back at the Partition and all the events that took place during the mass migration of people from one side of border to the other. In addition, Guha quickly touches on and re-asks many question that surround partition and the tragedy that occurred in the lead up to, during and after the drawing of the India-Pakistan border.

Manas: History and Politics, Constitution of India

Vinay Lal

From website: "This site aims at offering a scholarly yet readable narrative of some aspects of Indian history, politics, culture, and religion. It does not in the least aspire to be comprehensive, an objective that at any rate cannot be achieved, and subjects, personalities, and themes have been chosen for exploration and interpretation because they interest the creator of the site, though often they are of intrinsic importance in understanding the history and evolution of Indian civilization."

Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence

The Center for International Research and Studies

The Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence is a database “focusing on massacres and genocides of the 20th century,” including historical descriptions and analyses of well-documented and less well-known massacres. There are three types of documents available on the website: Chronological Indexes, Case Studies, Scholarly Reviews and Theoretical Papers.

Pakistan Toward Partition

The Library of Congress Country Studies
The Library of Congress Country Studies

This website page provides a summary of events that lead Pakistan to Partition in 1947. More historical information about Pakistan can also be found.

Panjab 1947: a heart divided

The National Archives

From The National Archives: The National Archives has recorded the narratives of four Panjabi elders uprooted from their homeland during the Partition of British India in 1947. At least 18 million people were uprooted and one million died in the mass migration that followed. In 2010, Jaswant, Mohammed, Reginald and Tilak Raj met at The National Archives to describe how Partition had shaped their lives.

Partition and Its Aftermath: Violence, Migration and the Role of Refugees in the Socio-Economic Development of Gujranwala and Sialkot Cities, 1947-1961

Ilyas Ahmad Chattha
University of Southampton- School of Humanities:Centre for Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies

An academic work, (PhD Thesis). Abstract from the author: The partition of India in August 1947 was marked by the greatest migration in the Twentieth Century and the death of an estimated one million persons. Yet until recently (Ansari 2005; Talbot 2006) little was written about the longer term socioeconomic consequences of this massive dislocation, especially for Pakistan. Even when the ‘human dimension’ of refugee experience rather than the ‘high politics’ of partition was addressed, it was not specifically tied to local case studies (Butalia, 1998).

Partition in the Classroom: Appendix

The University of Texas at Austin

An appendix of resources on Partition from The University of Texas at Austin's South Asia department.

Partition Memories


Intro from BBC: The 60th anniversary of the partition of India in 1947 and the birth of Pakistan was a momentous event in the region.
Millions of people found themselves on the wrong side of the border and hundreds of thousands lost their lives during the mass migration and communal bloodshed.

Generations of families, whose lives have been shaped by the partition, look back at the traumatic events of 1947 and the impact they had on the following 60 years.

Partition of 1947 - India - Pakistan

South Asia Citizens Web

An index of selected sources on the Partition of 1947.

Partition of India and the forgotten question of Baluchistan | Tarek Fatah | TEDxRGNUL

Youtube/ TED talks

While India is known to have taken birth in 1947 as a modern state, the civilisational ethos of India has survived for ages. Mr. Fatah proposes the need to develop a grand narrative of the Indian civilisation that extends beyond the geographical boundaries of the Indian Territory. Narrating the horror of the continuing conflict in Baluchistan, Tarek Fatah supports the cause of Baloch nationalists to be liberated from the control of Pakistan.

Writer, Broadcaster, a Secular and Liberal Activist. Tarek Fatah is a scholar par excellence with command over a range of subjects.

Partition of the Indian Subcontinent: Planning and Implementation

Rabia Umar Ali
Quaid-I-Azam University - Department of History

An academic work. (PhD Thesis) Abstract from the author: India’s Partition was an event of momentous significance for the three major communities, the Hindus, Muslims and the Sikhs who were at the time residing in the subcontinent. It was an equally important phenomenon for the British who were to withdraw their rule and thereby signify an imperial retreat from India. Independence was announced on the 15th of August 1947 after which the two sovereign States of India and Pakistan emerged on the map of the world.

Partition Voices

Andrew Whitehead

From Website: "Over the past twenty years, I have conducted scores of interviews with people with personal stories to tell of Partition - the botched division of British India in August 1947 to created two independent nations, India and Pakistan. It produced one of the great tragedies of a deeply tragic century - at least half-a-million dead, ten million or more migrants, and the rupture of a symbiotic culture, most notably in Punjab.

Partition, Pakistan, and South Asian History: In Search of a Narrative

David Gilmartin
Cambridge University Press

"Few events have been more important to the history of modern South Asia than the partition of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan in 1947. The coming of partition has cast a powerful shadow on historical reconstructions of the decades before 1947, while the ramifications of partition have continued to leave their mark on subcontinental politics fifty years after the event.

Photographs from India Post-Independence

Monica Ghosh
University of Hawaii at Manoa

This website features "the 36 photographs from India post-independence that have been digitalized in this collection were found in 2002, in a manila envelope, while cleanin gout a file cabinet used for storage. Since then the photographs have been housed in the Preservation Department at the University of Hawai'i Library."

Pioneer of modern art: The last train from Amritsar runs again after 16 years

Hifza Jillani
International New York Times

The restoration of the famous paintings done by Bashir Mirza 16 years ago.

Planning for the Partition of India 1947: A Scuttled Affair

Rabia Umar Ali
Pakistan Journal of History and Culture/National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research- Pakistan

An academic article. Abstract form author: The history of the struggle for independence and partition of India from British stronghold needs an authentic and objective analysis not only of the course that it followed or the humanistic perspective that it developed but the sheer manner in which it was planned by the departing authorities. It was not the act but the way it was performed that has brought a whole aura of negativism to be associated with such a historic episode leading many to state and believe that it was a mistake.

Postcolonial Studies @ Emory: Partition of India

Deepika Bahri

“Postcolonial Studies @ Emory is a student-authored project in (perpetual) progress at the English Department at Emory University. Begun in Spring 1996, it aims to furnish introductory level information on important creative and critical figures and significant topics in Postcolonial Studies.” Featured on this site is a study of the 1947 Partition of India and it includes a detailed timeline of events that occurred.

Rakhis elude these wrists as sisters live in Pak

Vimal Bhatia
The Times of India

A story of how Partition ripped families apart, and inflected everlasting damage. Bhatia shares a story of how a sister, who lives in India, cannot see her brother who live in Pakistan.

Recollections of the Partition of India

Neil Hajela

A website project collecting recollection of people who were direct witnesses to the impact of partition. This project examines the stories of four people who were directly impacted by the partition of India; either as being a migrant, or as a person who lived next to the refugee camps, and was directly impacted by the mass inflow of refugees.

Religion, Riots and Rift: Representations of the Partition of 1947 in English-Language Picture Books

Nithya Sivashankar
The Ohio State University

Saving Punjab

Geoffrey C. Ward

A story of a Sikh architect that is helping to preserve cultural sites in the north Indian state which is still haunted by 1947’s heart-wrenching Partition.

Shades Of The Old Punjab

Chander Suta Dogra

A story of how "Sikhs and Hindus across rural Punjab are helping restore mosques destroyed during Partition."

South Asia Citizens Web: Linking Dissent in South Asia and Beyond since 1998


The South Asian Citizens Web “aims to promote dialogue and information exchange between and about South Asian citizens initiatives.” It features resources and articles on the 1947 Partition of India.

Special Section on ‘India–China Relations in the Early 20th Century

Madhavi Thampi
China Report

The Finality of Partition: Bilateral Relations Between India and Pakistan, 1947-1957

Pallavi Raghavan
St. Johns College, University of Cambridge

An academic work, (PhD Thesis). Abstract from the author: This dissertation will focus on the history of bilateral relations between India and Pakistan. It looks at how the process of dealing with issues thrown up in the aftermath of partition shaped relations between the two countries. I focus on the debates around the immediate aftermath of partition, evacuee property disputes, border and water disputes, minorities and migration, trade between the two countries, which shaped the canvas in which the India-Pakistan relationship took shape.

The National Archives: The Punjab Boundary Force 1947

The National Archive

"From an India Office Military Department file. Report on the operations of the Punjab Boundary Force by its Commander, Major-General T W Rees. The Punjab Boundary Force was formed in a largely vain attempt to control and prevent communal warfare between Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab at the time of the partition of British India into the two independent states of India and Pakistan. It operated 1 Aug - 1 Sep 1947."

The National Archives: The Road to Partition 1939-47

The National Archive

This document collection through the National Archives is “related to India and the struggle for independence and the road to partition 1939-1947.” It provides sources such as letters, government documents, and articles pertaining to Partition and Independence. The National Archives “is the official archive and publisher for the UK government, and for England and Wales.”

The Old Indian Photos: Historical Old VIntage Photographs of the Indian Subcontinent


This website features "historical old rare vintage photographs and Videos of Indian Subcontinent," including photos taken during the Partition of India.

The Partition Museum Project

The Arts and Cultural Heritage Trust
Kishwar Desai
LSE: South Asia Centre

The main focus of the The Arts and Cultural Heritage Trust is to set up a Partition Museum. The Partition Museum Project (TPMP) was initiated by The Arts and Cultural Heritage Trust (TAACHT), in early 2015, to work towards the establishment of a world class, physical museum, dedicated to the memory of the Partition in 1947 — its victims, its survivors and its lasting legacy. In one of the greatest and most painful upheavals of contemporary history, over twenty million migrated to a new homeland on the other side of a quickly demarcated border, leaving behind precious memories.

The Process of Partition, 1947

Dr. Frances W. Pritchett
Columbia University

A map index of how India transformed from princely states and British colonial rule to india now post-partition.

The Story of India: Partition & Independence

MayaVision International

From website: "Explore The Story of India through this interactive photo gallery that weaves together a series of interrelated themes, events, and individuals that helped shape India's history."

The Troubled History of Partition

Radha Kumar
Foreign Affairs

A comparative analysis on states that experienced partition, specifically Cyprus, India, Palestine, and Ireland.

Through My Eyes: Stories of Conflict, Belonging & Identity

Imperial War Museum Trading Company Ltd.

Summary: Through My Eyes is an online exhibition created by the Imperial War Museum. It features personal stories of war, conflict, belonging, and identity from the Indian Partition and other historical contexts.

Towards Freedom


Towards Freedom is a historical web archive "dedicated solely to the purpose of learning re-search the history of India's struggle for Freedom from the yoke of imperialism." It features biographies of prominent leaders of the independence movement, photos, descriptions of individual movements, and a large pool of resources pertaining to Indian Independence.

What Really Caused the Violence of Partition?

Guneeta Singh Bhalla
The Diplomat

Whose Homeland? Territoriality and Religious Nationalism in Pre-Partition Bengal

Reece Jones
University of Wisconsin-Madison

Abstract from author: Scholarly inquiries into communalism in South Asia have often exclusively focused on politically constructed religious and ethnic identity categories. This article challenges these assumptions by arguing that territoriality and the designation of homelands played an important, but largely unrecognized, role in developing social and political boundaries in the region.

Who’s responsible for India’s partition?

Uday Balakrishnan